Cultural Factors affecting Consumer Behaviour Cultural Factors affecting Consumer Behaviour Consumer behaviour deals with the study of buying behaviour of consumers. Consumer behaviour helps us understand why and why not an individual purchases goods and services from the market. There are several factors which influence the buying decision of consumers, cultural factors being one of the most important factors. What are Cultural Factors?
Life Mandeville was born in to a distinguished family in the Netherlands, either in or nearby Rotterdam. His father was a physician, as was his great-grandfather, a factor that, no doubt, influenced his own educational path in medicine at the University of Leyden, receiving his M.
He also held a baccalaureate in philosophy, and wrote his dissertation defending the Cartesian doctrine that animal bodies are mere automata because they lack immaterial souls.
Mandeville moved to England some time after the Glorious Revolution ofand it was here he settled permanently, married, and had at least two children.
His first published works in English were anonymous pieces in entitled The Pamphleteers: Mandeville supported his family through his work as a physician, he was also engaged in many literary-political activities.
His political interests were not directly obvious until when he published a piece of political propaganda, The Mischiefs that Ought Justly to be Apprehended from a Whig-Government, which demonstrates his support for the Whig party.
Throughout his life, he published numerous smaller works and essays, most of them containing harsh social criticism.
Published inFree Thoughts on Religion, the Church and National Happiness was his final party political tract in which he endorses the advantages of Whig governance as well as advancing a skeptical view of the religious establishment and priestcraft.
Mandeville still continued to publish other provocative pieces, for example: A Modest Defence of Publick Stewscontaining controversial plans which would create public housing for prostitution. Within this piece he argued that the best societal solution was to legalize prostitution and regulate it under strict government supervision.
The Fable of the Bees It is rare that a poem finds its way into serious philosophical discussion, as The Grumbling Hive: The Fable of the Bees: The Fable grew over a period of twenty-four years, eventually reaching its final, sixth edition in In this work, Mandeville gives his analysis of how private vices result in public benefits like industry, employment and economic flourishing.
Most of the work he later produced was either an expansion or defense of the Fable in the light of contemporary opposition. The Grumbling Hive poem is a short piece, later published as just a section of the larger Fable, which was mostly comprised as a series of commentaries upon the poem.
It immediately introduces its reader to a spacious and luxurious hive of bees. The society flourished in many ways, but no trade was without dishonesty. Oddly, the worst cheats of the hive were those who complained most about this dishonesty and fraud so plaguing their society.
As a result, industry collapsed, and the once flourishing society was destroyed in battle, leaving few bees remaining. These bees, to avoid the vices of ease and extravagance, flew into a hollow tree in a contented honesty.
The implication of the poem is clear for the beehive, but perhaps not for humanity: However, it is precisely this paradox on which Mandeville draws to make his larger point.
But the Fable initially garnered little attention. The edition soon prompted reproach from the public, and was even presented before the Grand Jury of Middlesex and there declared a public nuisance. The presentment of the Jury claimed that the Fable intended to disparage religion and virtue as detrimental to society, and to promote vice as a necessary component of a well-functioning state.
Though never censored, the book and author achieved sudden disrepute, and the Fable found itself the subject of conversation amongst clergymen, journalists, and philosophers.
If pride were eradicated tomorrow, the result would leave hundreds of companies bankrupt, prompt mass unemployment, risk the collapse of industry, and in turn devastate both the economic security and with it the military power of the British commercial state.
Similarly, and on a smaller scale, without thieves there would be no locksmiths, without quarrels over property, no lawyers, and so on. Crucially, however, Mandeville did not claim a paradox of private vice, public virtue.
It is still disputed as to what, exactly, Mandeville thought the relation between private vice and public benefit should be: Or did he seriously believe that modern commercial states should abandon their luxurious comforts for austere self-denial, so as to escape the paradox he alleged?
On the one hand, Mandeville wished to imply that common sense views are not as reliant on common sense as they first appear: On the other, those who preach virtue may turn out to be deluded hypocrites: For Mandeville, this was incorrect and preposterous: Much in keeping with the physician he was, it is fitting that he took on the task of diagnosing society in order to expose what he believed to be the true motives of humankind.
His man was necessarily fallen man: All social virtues are evolved from self-love, which is at the core irredeemably vicious.
To many, Mandeville was on par with Thomas Hobbes in promoting a doctrine of egoism which threatened to render all putative morality a function of morally-compromised selfishness. According to Mandeville, skillful politicians originally flattered the masses into believing that actions were vicious when done in order to gratify selfish passions, and virtuous when they were performed in contrast with immediate impulse of nature to acquire private pleasure, by instead suppressing this urge temporarily so as not to offend or harm others.
When men learned to temporarily suppress their urges for pleasure, they did not act from virtue.
What they really did was find innovative ways to better secure their private pleasures, by engaging in forms of socially-sanctioned behavior they were flattered for- thus securing a more advanced form of pleasure than would be had by simply glorying over their peers in immediate displays of selfishness.
Because he considered all natural human passions to be selfish, no action could be virtuous if it was done from a natural impulse which would itself be necessarily selfish.Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs. Consumers may understand marketing tactics that incorporate religious references, identify ways in which religion influences health and ethical behavior, and also further understand how different aspects of religion differentially influence consumption.
Understanding human behavior is more than the basis of psychology — it is an essential component of virtually every organization and business.
Ethical issues across cultures: managing the differing perspectives of China and the USA Dennis A. Pitta Professor of Marketing, University of Baltimore, Baltimore.
Religious Influences on Shopping Behaviour: An Exploratory Study Rushmore Business School a University of Warwick b This research examines the influence of religion on consumer choice and is based on the proposition that adherence to .
Countless factors, personality to culture, have been considered to explain the consumer behavior. Surprisingly, the religion which affects the social and cultural environments in which customers reside and conduct their individual behaviors and.