Psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed that love consists of three components: People express intimacy in three ways: Physical intimacy involves mutual affection and sexual activity.
Northwestern University This paper reveals a theory of personality based on the formation of intimate relationships during the early stages of a person's lifetime. During infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, new needs and tensions arise in the individual.
In attempt to seek ways of adapting to these newfound stresses, people develop different kinds of intimate relationships that ultimately form their personality. Relationships formed during each stage of life serve as a prototype for interactions in later stages.
For this reason, there exists a continuum of relationships formed throughout a lifetime that shape and mold specific personality traits. Neither intimacy nor individual development can exist alone.
The birth of a child initiates a human being into a life-long process of mutual adaptation between the child, his or her intimate relationship partners and the broader social environment.
Intimate interactions and relationships affect adaptations to the changing needs and stresses that evolve with each stage of development throughout one's lifetime. Intimate interactions from early life serve as the basis upon which relationships later in life are formed.
Environmental contingencies to which individuals must adapt are rooted in these relationships. In an attempt to adapt to other people's styles of relating, one must adjust his or her own behaviors Baldwin, Based on the fact that human development is a product of complex interplay of forces that reside within the individual human being and the environment by which he or she is surrounded, it can be proposed that interpersonal interactions and relationships shape individual personality and coping styles.
Psychological maturity involves integrating intimacy into a life framework that encompasses all parts of the self. Relationships Formed During Infancy and Childhood Dimensions of Temperament From the time of birth, every individual is biologically predisposed to approach the world with his or her own personal style.
Studies of infants suggest that some variability in human behavior may result directly or indirectly from genetic differences. Developmental psychologists term these differences as dimensions of temperament.
Based on chemical, biological, experiential, interpersonal, and social factors, different dimensions of temperament manifest themselves over time and across different situations. Psychologists Buss and Plomin have proposed the existence of four basic temperament dimensions present in human beings McAdams, Emotionality is the tendency to express negative emotions such as anger and fear frequently and vigorously.
Activity is the degree of physical movement that a person characteristically shows. Impulsivity is the degree to which a person acts quickly without deliberation, moves from one activity to the next, and finds it difficult to practice self-control. Sociability is the tendency to be outgoing and friendly and to enjoy the company of others McAdams,pp.
According to this theory, persons are inherently born with tendencies to develop these four temperaments to different levels.
These dimensions are present in infancy and continue to grow throughout childhood and adulthood. The social environment reacts to these tendencies, modifying and shaping them in different ways. Such modifications are the results of interpersonal relationships that begin to form during early life.
The development of a unique interpersonal style is a function of temperament McAdams, The Mother-Child Relationship A human being's first intimate relationship is the mother-child relationship.
According to Freuda human being's first encounter with intimate behavior is with his or her mother during the act of breast-feeding. During infancy, the baby obtains nourishment and pleasure from sucking at the mother's breast, thus reducing tension caused by the hunger drive.
Engagement in such a tension-relieving activity during this early stage serves as the prototype for relationships that develop later on in life. Life-stage-related changes in stress, tension, and needs are based on the outcome of such coping attempts formed during infancy. The need for security and comfort play an important role in shaping the interactions with caregivers McAdams,pp.
Attachment According to the Bowlby and Ainsworththe love between a mother and an infant is the result of an attachment bond formed during the first year of life. Interactions between a child and his or her mother form behavioral patters that are reflected in later relationships.
An example of the development of personality as a result of this bond can be seen in the securely attached infant.
Infants who develop "secure" personality types feel confident and at ease when relating to others. They learn how to take turns, how to lead and follow, and how to express and receive.
The attachment bond serves as a prototype and provides the earliest pattern for warm and close relationships McAdams,pp. Interactions With Peers During preschool years, a child's need for autonomy and individuation influences his or her intimate interactions with peers.The fear of intimacy is separate from the fear of fear of vulnerability, though the two can be closely intertwined.A person who is living with a fear of intimacy may be comfortable becoming vulnerable and showing their true self to the world at first, or at least to trusted friends and relatives.
A review of the literature relating to the psychosocial barriers to sexual intimacy in older people reveals wide-ranging influences on people aged 75–85 years. These influences include: a lack of positive social policy, a lack of research, partner availability, negative media portrayals, psychological factors, relationship factors, and difficulties in interactions with health professionals.
With the cultural lens almost uniformly focused on sexuality and youth, where does that leave older adults in our society? Indeed, with a large portion of the baby boomer generation now over 65 years older, this issue demands that we shine the light on how older adults .
Discuss the developmental tasks of early adulthood. Describe physical development in early adulthood. Explain how early adulthood is a healthy, yet risky time of life. Summarize Levinson’s theory of adult transitions. Distinguish between formal and postformal thought. Explain dialectical thought. Describe Erikson’s stage of intimacy vs. isolation. Aging and Human Sexuality Resource Guide. Introduction. Wiley series on adulthood and aging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, Inc. With the increase in life expectancy and the ever-growing population of health older adults, sexual intimacy is an important quality of life issue. The advent of safe, easily administered vasoactive agents has. Sexuality & Intimacy in Long Term Care Facilities Presented by Julie Button and Amy Panosh In August , Elmer, a sixty year old man and Harriet, a seventy-eight year old woman, lived in the •Employee of a nursing home, CBRF, adult family home or a state treatment facility having sexual contact with a resident/patient.
A more significant problem with these ads is the image they project about healthy intimacy for older people. The ads depict “a Utopian version of sex.” The individuals are fit, attractive and seem to “segue seamlessly from doing the dishes to the bedroom.” Such ads ignore what we know about romantic activity and older adults.
Older adults, men and women alike, may worry that their partners will no longer find them attractive. Aging-related sexual problems like the ones listed above can cause stress and worry.
This worry can get in the way of enjoying a fulfilling sex life. SEXUALITY AND INTIMACY ISSUES AS WE AGE Patrick Arbore, Ed.D., Founder and Director Center for Elderly Suicide Prevention & Grief Related Services, • Sexual orientation of older adults includes heterosexual as well as LGBT individuals • Older adults date, cohabitate, engage in.