In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past. Do you think this is a positive or negative development? In recent years it has become far more normal for people to live alone, particularly in large cities in the developed world.
The inherited English language term for this concept is folkused alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period.
In Early Modern English and until the midth century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan in the sense of disparate "nations" which did not yet participate in the Christian oikumeneas the Septuagint used ta ethne "the nations" to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews".
In Classical Greekthe term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group", mostly translated as " nationpeople"; only in Hellenistic Greek did the term tend to become further narrowed to refer to "foreign" or " barbarous " nations in particular whence the later meaning "heathen, pagan".
The sense of "different cultural groups", and in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the s to s,  serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism.
The abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character" first recorded The term ethnic group was first recorded in and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in The process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesisa term in use in ethnological literature since about Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of often mutually overlapping groups can be identified: Definitions and conceptual history[ edit ] Ethnography begins in classical antiquity ; after early authors like Anaximander and Hecataeus of MiletusHerodotus in c.
The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had also developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes.
According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, politics, and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, Politics and Reality: They regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, rather than an essential quality inherent to human groups.
One is between " primordialism " and " instrumentalism ".
In the primordialist view, the participant perceives ethnic ties collectively, as an externally given, even coercive, social bond. Constructivists view national and ethnic identities as the product of historical forces, often recent, even when the identities are presented as old.
This is in the context of debates over multiculturalism in countries, such as the United States and Canada, which have large immigrant populations from many different cultures, and post-colonialism in the Caribbean and South Asia.
Secondly, this belief in shared Gemeinschaft did not create the group; the group created the belief.
Third, group formation resulted from the drive to monopolise power and status. This was contrary to the prevailing naturalist belief of the time, which held that socio-cultural and behavioral differences between peoples stemmed from inherited traits and tendencies derived from common descent, then called "race".
To Barth, ethnicity was perpetually negotiated and renegotiated by both external ascription and internal self-identification.
Barth's view is that ethnic groups are not discontinuous cultural isolates, or logical a prioris to which people naturally belong. He wanted to part with anthropological notions of cultures as bounded entities, and ethnicity as primordialist bonds, replacing it with a focus on the interface between groups.
He also described that in the first decades of usage, the term ethnicity had often been used in lieu of older terms such as "cultural" or "tribal" when referring to smaller groups with shared cultural systems and shared heritage, but that "ethnicity" had the added value of being able to describe the commonalities between systems of group identity in both tribal and modern societies.
Cohen also suggested that claims concerning "ethnic" identity like earlier claims concerning "tribal" identity are often colonialist practices and effects of the relations between colonized peoples and nation-states.
Sometimes these contradictions are destructive, but they can also be creative and positive. Thus, anthropologist Joan Vincent observed that ethnic boundaries often have a mercurial character.
Approaches to understanding ethnicity[ edit ] Different approaches to understanding ethnicity have been used by different social scientists when trying to understand the nature of ethnicity as a factor in human life and society. Hall observes, World War II was a turning point in the ethnic studies.Conflict between racial and ethnic groups has been a problem throughout history, and is still a major problem today.
Three underlying reasons for conflict between racial and ethnic groups are religious differences, racist upbringings of children, and a history of conflicts between racial and ethnic groups/5(8). An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic lausannecongress2018.com the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within lausannecongress2018.com final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle.
Ethnic conflict does not necessarily have to be violent. CHAPTER ONE Ethnic Nationalism and Civic Nationalism. The discrimination between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism is common in writings on nationalism and nations, whether it be as the civic-ethnic division, the political-cultural, or the Western-Eastern division.
Ethnic conflict is a form of conflict in which the goals of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its causes, and potential remedies are perceived along ethnic lines (Horowitz, ). Ethnic Conflict in the United States Words | 3 Pages. Ethnic Conflict in the United States The United States is considered a melting pot because of the vast array of different cultures, ethnicities, and religious groups who all live within its borders.
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