Worldwide Effects of Nuclear War Some Conclusions We have considered the problems of large-scale nuclear war from the standpoint of the countries not under direct attack, and the difficulties they might encounter in postwar recovery. It is true that most of the horror and tragedy of nuclear war would be visited on the populations subject to direct attack, who would doubtless have to cope with extreme and perhaps insuperable obstacles in seeking to reestablish their own societies. It is no less apparent, however, that other nations, including those remote from the combat, could suffer heavily because of damage to the global environment. Finally, at least brief mention should be made of the global effects resulting from disruption of economic activities and communications.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Edward Teller in Detailed knowledge of fission and fusion weapons is classified to some degree in Effects of nuclear weapons essay every industrialized nation.
In the United States, such knowledge can by default be classified as " Restricted Data ", even if it is created by persons who are not government employees or associated with weapons programs, in a legal doctrine known as " born secret " though the constitutional standing of the doctrine has been at times called into question; see United States v.
Effects of nuclear weapons essay secret is rarely invoked for cases of private speculation. The official policy of the United States Department of Energy has been not to acknowledge the leaking of design information, as such acknowledgment would potentially validate the information as accurate.
In a small number of prior cases, the U. Ford defied government orders to remove classified information from his book, Building the H Bomb: Ford claims he used only pre-existing information and even submitted a manuscript to the government, which wanted to remove entire sections of the book for concern that foreign nations could use the information.
Such processes have resulted in a body of unclassified knowledge about nuclear bombs that is generally consistent with official unclassified information releases, related physics, and is thought to be internally consistent, though there are some points of interpretation that are still considered open.
The state of public knowledge about the Teller—Ulam design has been mostly shaped from a few specific incidents outlined in a section below.
Basic principle[ edit ] The basic principle of the Teller—Ulam configuration is the idea that different parts of a thermonuclear weapon can be chained together in "stages", with the detonation of each stage providing the energy to ignite the next stage. At a bare minimum, this implies a primary section that consists of an implosion-type fission bomb a "trigger"and a secondary section that consists of fusion fuel.
The energy released by the primary compresses the secondary through a process called " radiation implosion ", at which point it is heated and undergoes nuclear fusion. This process could be continued, with energy from the secondary igniting a third fusion stage; Russia's AN " Tsar Bomba " is thought to have been a three-stage fission-fusion-fusion device.
Theoretically by continuing this process thermonuclear weapons with arbitrarily high yield could be constructed. One possible version of the Teller—Ulam configuration Surrounding the other components is a hohlraum or radiation case, a container that traps the first stage or primary's energy inside temporarily.
The outside of this radiation case, which is also normally the outside casing of the bomb, is the only direct visual evidence publicly available of any thermonuclear bomb component's configuration.
Numerous photographs of various thermonuclear bomb exteriors have been declassified. When fired, the plutonium Pu or uranium U core would be compressed to a smaller sphere by special layers of conventional high explosives arranged around it in an explosive lens pattern, initiating the nuclear chain reaction that powers the conventional "atomic bomb".
The secondary is usually shown as a column of fusion fuel and other components wrapped in many layers. Around the column is first a "pusher-tamper", a heavy layer of uranium U or lead that helps compress the fusion fuel and, in the case of uranium, may eventually undergo fission itself.
This dry fuel, when bombarded by neutronsproduces tritiuma heavy isotope of hydrogen which can undergo nuclear fusionalong with the deuterium present in the mixture. See the article on nuclear fusion for a more detailed technical discussion of fusion reactions.
Inside the layer of fuel is the " spark plug ", a hollow column of fissile material plutonium or uranium often boosted by deuterium gas. The spark plug, when compressed, can itself undergo nuclear fission because of the shape, it is not a critical mass without compression.
The tertiary, if one is present, would be set below the secondary and probably be made up of the same materials. The fissioning primary produces four types of energy: The interstage is responsible for accurately modulating the transfer of energy from the primary to the secondary.
It must direct the hot gases, plasma, electromagnetic radiation and neutrons toward the right place at the right time.
Less than optimal interstage designs have resulted in the secondary failing to work entirely on multiple shots, known as a " fissile fizzle ". The Koon shot of Operation Castle is a good example; a small flaw allowed the neutron flux from the primary to prematurely begin heating the secondary, weakening the compression enough to prevent any fusion.
Classified paper by Teller and Ulam on March 9, On Heterocatalytic Detonations I: Hydrodynamic Lenses and Radiation Mirrors, in which they proposed their revolutionary staged implosion idea.
This declassified version is extensively redacted. There is very little detailed information in the open literature about the mechanism of the interstage.
One of the best sources is a simplified diagram of a British thermonuclear weapon similar to the American W80 warhead. It does not reflect like a mirror ; instead, it gets heated to a high temperature by the X-ray flux from the primary, then it emits more evenly spread X-rays that travel to the secondary, causing what is known as radiation implosion.
In Ivy Mike, gold was used as a coating over the uranium to enhance the blackbody effect. The reflector seals the gap between the Neutron Focus Lens in the center and the outer casing near the primary. It separates the primary from the secondary and performs the same function as the previous reflector.
There are about six neutron guns seen here from Sandia National Laboratories  each poking through the outer edge of the reflector with one end in each section; all are clamped to the carriage and arranged more or less evenly around the casing's circumference. The neutron guns are tilted so the neutron emitting end of each gun end is pointed towards the central axis of the bomb.
Neutrons from each neutron gun pass through and are focused by the neutron focus lens towards the centre of primary in order to boost the initial fissioning of the plutonium.Tennessee Law Review; A Critical Guide to the Second Amendment, by Glenn Harlan Reynolds.
Nuclear Weapons and their effects Essay - A nuclear explosion is caused by the release of energy in an atom, either through fission or fusion. Fission weapons cause an explosion by the splitting of atomic nuclei. The possession of nuclear weapons will continue to bring its vast array of disadvantages, whether that be the catastrophic effects that a nuclear weapon.
Divorce is an unfortunate event for any family, particularly those with children.
Studies have shown that approximately 25% of children whose parents divorce suffer psychologically, socially, and academically at some point in their lives.
CCNR is a not-for-profit organization, federally incorporated in It is dedicated to education and research on all issues related to nuclear energy, whether civilian or military -- including non-nuclear alternatives -- especially those pertaining to Canada.
Dangers of Molecular Manufacturing. Overview: Molecular manufacturing (MM) will be a significant breakthrough, comparable perhaps to the Industrial Revolution—but compressed into a few years.
This has the potential to disrupt many aspects of society and politics. The power of the technology may cause two competing nations to enter a disruptive and unstable arms race.